Yiyi Ku

Yiyi Ku

Yiyi Ku is a pianist and teacher. Born in Taiwan, she grew up in New Zealand and obtained her Master of Music degree with Distinction in Composition and Piano Performance from the University of Canterbury. Yiyi also holds a Licentiate in Piano Performance from the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. She is a Nationally Certified Teacher of Music in Piano from Music Teachers National Association and American College of Musicians/National Guild of Piano Teachers. She has also been certified as Advanced Specialist in both Theory and Piano from RCM. Yiyi has maintained a busy private studio for many years, and enjoys teaching students of all ages and levels.

Dear MTH blog readers,

First of all, Happy Holidays! I hope this post finds you well, and I hope you are all going to have a well deserved break! I sure am looking forward to mine!

I am pretty sure all of us have recorded our students in some form or another. I remember when I first started teaching (many years ago), recording was a big deal. Cassettes and CDs were the norm. Eventually I acquired an MD recorder. The audio quality was good, but no video. Then I got a camcorder, so I finally could get video, but the audio quality was not desirable. Then I got my first Apple laptop, then I got an iPad. Fast forward to today, I now record my students with my iPhone, on a daily basis. 

I am still no recording expert, and this post is not about how to make a top quality recording. This post is about the benefits of frequent, everyday recordings of students. 

Most of us record our studio recitals. These are always a big deal, and we know more or less that the students are going to perform their best. And that’s what I did before – only recording students when I knew they would be good. So we recorded recitals, festivals, and especially competitions.

But for some time now, I have been recording my students much more regularly, and often during their lessons. We also don’t wait until their pieces are “perfect”- we record while their pieces are still very much work in progress. Moreover, I have been using Facebook “LIVE,” so the recordings are live recordings of their actual lessons. 

I have found this to be tremendously useful:

  1. It gets them used to the idea of performing. They used to get nervous when the camera is on. Now it is not a big deal. This means they get used to dealing with their nerves, and they do better in recitals and other performances. 
  2. They get to watch the recordings later. This is the biggest benefit. They get an opportunity to review what we talk about in the lessons so they are more likely to remember what to fix.
  3. The recordings are online for all to see – parents, grandparents, uncles, friends, and the public. Of course this means the parents must give consent to the recording in the first place. So far my students’ parents are totally on board (I did have one parent question it, but they left now!) Usually, the parents are very proud to share the videos, and other family members get a glimpse of what happens in the lessons. It is also easy to make the videos private or only viewable for selected people, should that be a concern for some. 
  4. It increases your studio’s online presence. I have received many lesson inquiries, because someone stumbled across one of my lesson videos, they witnessed how I worked with a student, they like my approach, and they want to be my student. 

Of course, there are many other recording platforms these days, and YouTube is another indispensable social media tool. I prefer Facebook Live for everyday recordings, because it does not take up any memory space on my phone, which now has three years worth of videos and pictures of my daughter since she was born. I also find YouTube to be more clumsy to use, and Facebook LIVE is just one click away. I still use YouTube for more “serious” recordings, such as for competitions, where it is standard to include a YouTube link of the student’s performance. 

Another something I discovered, just today, is how interesting and beneficial it is, for students to record one another. I had three students come in to the studio today to record, because they are entering one of these video competitions, and today was the deadline. We had been recording at their individual private lessons, but as you all know it is so hard to get that “perfect” recording, so we weren’t satisfied that we had the best recording yet. They did not have any private lesson time left, so I suggested that they all come and take turns to record one another. I set up the phone, showed them what to do, and I closed the studio door and went upstairs to spend time with my daughter. I could hear them. It took them each several takes, but did they do so much better knowing their peers were in the audience and that everyone’s time is precious! I am sure all of our other lesson recordings helped, but it was so interesting to see how well they did. They gave one another support, encouragement, and the comradery between them was endearing and so heart-warming. I had told them to take turns, so if they messed up, they were to let someone else go next, so it was fair for everyone’s time. I could hear from upstairs, that they did not follow this rule, but encouraged their peers to just try again – “it’s ok, don’t worry about us” – when it was clear someone just got nervous and made silly mistakes near the beginning. I was so proud of them and after about an hour and half, all three managed to make the best recording of their piece that they will submit for competition for a chance to perform at Carnegie Hall. 

Whether they win the competition or not, it does not matter. That is not the point. The point is they worked so hard on their piece, they went above and beyond trying to get a perfect recording which, as we all know, is like chasing a unicorn. They had a glimpse of what it takes to be truly amazing at something. I have a feeling what they experienced this afternoon will remain in their memory for many years to come.

If anyone is interested, my live lesson recordings can be found here.

Have a great holiday season, everyone, and happy recording to all of your students!

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Dear readers,

Throughout my teaching career, I have been blessed with many different kinds of students: the young, the old, the good, the bad, the amazing, the astonishing, the talented, the hardworking, the lazy, the slow, the ones that practice and the ones that don’t… Each has made me a better teacher and I am the teacher today because of every single student I have ever taught. Today I am writing about a very special student whom I have had the pleasure and privilege to work with for the last two years. His name is Kodi.

Kodi is a 22 year old student. He is blind and autistic. He is a musical savant. Before Kodi came into my studio, I had not even heard of the word “savant.” It means he has exceptional ability and memory. He can hear a piece of music once, and basically play it back to you.

Prior to Kodi, I did not have any experience teaching blind students. I had very limited experience teaching students on the autism spectrum, although none as severe as Kodi. Kodi can not carry a conversation. He understands everything I say, but he can not communicate with words. His speaking vocabulary is very limited. However, he is a great singer, and he is basically a human jukebox, he knows the music and lyrics to just about every song under the sun. 

Not surprisingly, like many autistic students, Kodi has perfect pitch. His piano technique is unique. It is a combination of years of self exploration around the keyboard and limited formal instruction. Because he can not see, he has basically memorized exactly where each key is in relation to one another. The black key groups are his “landmarks.” It still amazes me how he can go from one register to another with extreme accuracy. He can play many of the classics, for example Beethoven’s Fur Elise, because he has heard them from somewhere. His versions may not be perfect, not because he can not play them perfectly, but mostly because the versions he heard were imperfect to begin with.

People who know about Kodi often ask me how he learns the materials to begin with, since he can not see the score. I do not teach Braille music. Everything Kodi learns with me he learns by ear. I play absolutely everything for him at first, and he copies. Because of his extraordinary ears and memory, he can learn very complicated pieces relatively quickly and easily, much quicker than if he had to learn it through Braille. (That’s an entirely different topic, and since I am no expert in Braille, I will not attempt to go into that further.)

I am writing about Kodi, because there must be other teachers like me who teach blind students, autistic students, or students with other differences, that we can share our experiences. I belong to the amazing Facebook page The Art of Piano Pedagogy, and every so often, someone would ask how to go about teaching such students. Every autistic student is different, not all blind students are autistic, and certainly not all autistic students are musical savants. I want to share what I have found from my experience with Kodi, and hopefully this post will find others with similar experiences. 

Last November, Kodi performed at Carnegie Hall. He is going again this November, as a First Prize Winner of The Golden Classical International Music Awards Competition. Last year his winning piece was Schubert’s Impromptu in E flat major, this year he won with Chopin’s Fantasie Impromptu. These are advanced scores for any student, and for Kodi they were major accomplishments, since he did not come to me with the usual classical training and foundation one would need in order to play these pieces. Because of Kodi’s prodigious ability, memorizing was the easiest part! Here were some of the challenges:

  1. Fingering – Because Kodi had been largely self taught, his fingerings were all over the place. He did not like to use his thumbs! I think it’s because the thumbs are shorter fingers than the rest, so subconsciously he avoids them, especially on black keys! He still does not trust his thumbs, and often will use other fingers first, but whenever I say “I love my thumbs” he will know what I mean. Kodi is also an expert in redistributing. He will sometimes play certain notes with the other hand than what the composer intended, because for him it is easier to find that note with that hand. Sometimes this is ok, but sometimes the resulting sound is different. 
  2. Unnecessary stretching – Because he can not see, he often stretches to find the next note. He has amazing span between every finger. He can play very large intervals between any adjacent fingers. This causes tension to my eyes! I am not sure if it causes physical tension for him, probably not, because he is so used to it. I do remind him not to stretch when there is another solution. 
  3. Arm and Wrist movements – vertical movement involving the wrists going up and down are very difficult for Kodi. He keeps his hands and fingers on the keyboard, he changes registers by moving horizontally and the idea of lifting your hand in the air is hard for him. I guess if I could not see, I would not want to leave the piano keys, either. This is the most challenging aspect. 

Every time I see Kodi, I am in awe. We often record our lessons live, so he can go home and listen to them again. Recently I shared one such clip on the Art of Piano Pedagogy, and the response was phenomenal. If you have a moment, take a look. If you have any experience teaching students like Kodi, please comment below!


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Dear readers,

In 2011, I wrote a blog about some of the different music exams available for students – Comparing Different Music Testing Systems. 

At that time, the RCM – Royal Conservatory of Music, was just starting to launch their program in the US. It has now become quite popular in my studio, so in this post, I aim to compare that with the also widely popular exam in California called CM – Certificate of Merit.

What are they?

The RCM – Royal Conservatory of Music is based in Canada. The CM is based in California. The RCM has changed their program name several times – Music Achievement Program, Music Development Program, Certificate Program. The CM is run by the MTAC – Music Teachers Association of California. Both programs are very reputable and have a long history. The best way to find out more is to visit their websites. Basically, they both offer graded music exams to students.


CM goes from Preparatory Level, Levels 1-9, and Advanced Level (Level 10). RCM goes from Preparatory A, Preparatory B, Levels 1-10, and ARCT (a diploma, Associate of the Royal Conservatory of Music). The different levels are similar in terms of difficulty, so for example, CM recognizes the equivalent RCM level, and students can use RCM books in CM exams. 


In CM, theory is mandatory from Preparatory Level. Students must pass the theory exam to obtain their certificate. In RCM, theory exams are separate. Students can do their theory exam at a different time, or even in a different year, or not at all. This makes CM more difficult for up to about Level 5, and for very young students for whom taking a written test may be a challenge. In terms of content, CM Theory is manageable by the average student that is willing to study, but RCM Theory is much more difficult, especially in the upper levels, and from Level 9, RCM Theory is split into two separate exams called Harmony and History. My opinion is that, Level 9 and Level 10 RCM Theory is first-year college material, each paper is a subject in its own right, and requires a separate weekly lesson. 


CM is very affordable. Every year there may be a slight increase, but from memory it ranges between $50-$100, depending on level. RCM exams are much more expensive, from $59-$425. Also, in RCM, Theory exams are separate fees, from $125-$195. So, if you are doing level 9, and you intend to do Performance and both of the Theory papers, Harmony and History, then you are looking at $175 for each of the Theory exams, on top of your Performance exam, which is $260. For Level 10 the fees are even higher. CM is able to keep the cost low for students because there is a mandatory teacher work agreement. Also, teachers must be a member of MTAC, have paid (not insignificant) membership fees, and agree to work, without pay, for half day to full day on the day of the exam, depending on how many students they have doing the exam. RCM teachers do not have to pay a teacher membership fee to enter a student, and do not have to work at all on exam day. Also, CM registration is primarily done by the teacher, and there is a lot of work involved in entering student information, repertoire information, carpool, etc, while in RCM, parents do all registrations online by themselves!


In CM, every student plays the same technique routine that is required for their level. At the exam, they are timed and they must complete the requirement within the time limit. In RCM, each level has a list of requirements, students must learn the whole list, but at the exam the judge randomly picks this and that and the student must perform according to what they are asked. This requires more understanding of the various elements and the response time is taken into consideration. 


Both CM and RCM have their own syllabi. CM syllabus is more flexible. Usually one piece per level is required from the syllabus and the rest can be at the same or more advanced levels. RCM syllabus is also quite extensive, compared to say ABRSM exams, but there is not as much flexibility as CM, usually only one piece may be substituted that does not come from the syllabus. RCM also publishes their own repertoire and étude books for each level. For CM, students play 2 pieces up to Level 2, 3 pieces from Levels 3-5, 4 pieces from Levels 6-10, and at Level 10 an additional piece called Étude. RCM exams involve 3-5 repertoire pieces, depending on level, plus 1-2 etudes. Both CM and RCM update their syllabi and requirements every so often, so please check with your teacher for the latest version. 


CM has some memory requirement, but usually not all repertoire pieces need to be memorized. RCM penalizes each piece that is not memorized (2 marks per piece).

Ear training

CM ear training is very basic, and the answers are in multiple choice format, so it is possible for students to just “guess” and pick something. RCM ear training is much more difficult. Another difference is that in CM, ear training score is totaled together with the theory score, while in RCM, it forms part of the performance exam.

Sight reading

This is quite similar in both exams. RCM also has a rhythm clapping part that CM does not have.


Right now, CM is still more popular in California, because it has been around much longer. RCM is gaining more popularity. In other parts of the country, people may not have even heard of CM, as they probably have their own state version, so in that sense RCM has more national recognition. Some teachers have a strong preference over one or the other. Certainly, it is a lot of work for a teacher to stay up to date with both syllabi and exam requirements. 


Any student can register for any level that they want in both exams, so it is not necessary to start from Preparatory Level and move up one level per year. CM is held once a year, so once a student has passed a level, they can skip levels the following year if they so choose. RCM has multiple exam sessions so some students may do two or even three levels a year, in the beginning stages, while others may only do one level every two years, especially for the higher levels. However, CM keeps a database so that if a student did not pass a particular level, they are not allowed to move on to the next level the following year. RCM does not have that restriction. 


In general, CM judging is more liberal and “encouraging” in nature. Students are given “Excellent,” “Good,” “Average,” “Weak,” or “Incomplete” raring, and if selected for Branch Honors, they get a score of 5+, 5, 5-, 4+, 4, 4-, etc. RCM judging is much more rigorous, students get a score out of 100, and they need 60 for Pass, 70 for Honors, 80 for First Class Honors, and 90 or above for First Class Honors with Distinction. CM judges are sourced fairly locally, usually they are teachers from nearby MTAC branches. RCM judges are usually flown in from out of state, if not from Canada. RCM judge training is very extensive, and they have a pretty uniform national standard. CM judging is sort of random, some judges are very liberal, others very strict. CM does offer Advanced Panel for the exceptional students, and Young Artist Guild, which are artist level, and only the most promising students that will have a career in music gain that recognition.


So which one is better? This question is a bit like asking if International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program is better than Advanced Placement (AP) courses, or if private school is better than public school. There is no black and white answer. Just because a school does not offer one or the other does not mean they can not produce good students. Similarly, a student can be extremely good without going through either program, as there are still plenty other recitals, festivals, or competitions that they can participate in, such as those outlined in my old post. These exams all offer motivation for students, and recognition for their achievement and hard work. However, studying piano is not about a race to Level 10. In fact, Level 10 is not a realistic goal for the average student. The CM program awards Senior Medal to seniors who have completed Level 7, a realistic goal for the average student that puts in decent amount of practice. Beyond that, a student has to be truly dedicated and works extremely hard. At the same time, a student who has completed Level 10 in either or both programs is not guaranteed anything, it does not mean they will automatically be accepted into whatever college or university they want to go to. However, their applications will stand out, at least on paper, and they will have learned so many skills that they can apply later on. This post is not about the benefit of studying music, which of course there are numerous, so I won’t even elaborate on that. Some teachers do not believe in any exams at all, just as some teachers do not believe in competitions. However, students can learn many valuable lessons from taking part in these exams, as long as both students and parents have a realistic goal. 

My philosophy, as a teacher, is that I will offer as many opportunities as there are out there for students in my studio. Every student is different, some are better suited to certain opportunities. It bothers me when a transfer student comes and tells me their previous teacher or whoever they met said this program is more superior than that program, or that a particular program is “too easy,” etc. Every program has its merits, and every program is difficult, if you intend to go all the way to the top. I have entered students in both exams for many years, and have had students complete level 10 under both programs, so I honestly feel both programs are great, and hopefully one day my own daughter (she is turning 3 soon) will benefit from doing both programs.

So what is the short answer? Have a student try both exams. If they do well in both, and enjoy the process, why not? If they struggle in either or both, then listen to the teacher recommendation. May be exams is just not for them. But it most certainly  does not mean they should not continue to study music!

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